الگوي چيدمان فضايي مدارس نوين مبتني بر اصول مدارس اسلامي در راستاي ارتقاء يادگيري افراد

نقش جهان-مطالعات نظری و فناوری‌های نوین معماری و شهرسازی

دوره 6 - شماره 2

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: بهره گيري از الگوهاي معماري مدارس اسامي در راستاي ارائه ي راه كارهايي براي طراحي كالبد محيط مدارس جديد، مبتني بر ارتقاء يادگيري كاربران، هدف اصلي اين پژوهش است. مدارس به عنوان مه مترين فضاهاي تربيت كننده ي نيروي انساني، نقش به سزايي در افزايش يادگيري افراد جامعه ايفا مي كند. ازاين رو طراحي محيط هايي مناسب در راستاي تكامل همه جانبه ي دانش آموزان، يك ضرورت است. مطالعه و بررسي معماري مدارس اسامي به شناخت معيارهاي كالبدي مؤثر بر طراحي مدارس مطلوب كمك خواهد كرد. تحقيق حاضر به بررسي عوامل تعيين كننده ي چيدمان فضايي در مدارس دوران اسامي و نمود و مصداق هاي آن در مدارس جديد، با رويكرد بهبود يادگيري مي پردازد. روش تحقيق كمي- كيفي بوده و به صورت تحليلي و پيمايشي انجام شده است. جامعه ي آماري موردبررسي شامل تمامي هنرآموزان ‌و دبيراني است كه در سال تحصيلي 1394-1393 در شهرستان زاهدان مشغول به فعاليت بوده اند. در اين تحقيق از روش - نمونه گيري خوشه اي چندمرحله اي استفاده شده؛ و حجم نمونه 310 نفر بوده است. پژوهشگران با مطالعات كتابخانه اي و بررسي نمونه هاي مدارس دوره ي اسامي در ايران متغيرهاي تأثيرگذار را استخراج نموده اند. در گام بعدي متغيرهاي به دست آمده در پرسشنامه هاي ساخته شده، موردسنجش قرارگرفته اند و پس از تعيين روايي و پايايي پرسشنامه از آن تحليل شده اند. داده هاي حاصل در نرم افزار SPSS  تحليل شده اند. نتايج حاصل  بيانگر تاثير مثبت معيارهاي چيدمان فضايي محيط مدرسه بر يادگيري كاربران است. اين معيارها شامل نحوه ي گردش در فضا، انعطاف پذيري، سرانه ي فضاي باز و مسقف، ارتباط فضاي درون با بيرون، مبلمان و عرصه بندي است. درنهايت؛ يافته هاي تحقيق به صورت اصول طراحي محيط مدارس جديد در جهت افزايش يادگيري كاربران تدوين و تبيين شده است.
Spatial Layout Pattern of New Schools based on the Principles of Islamic Schools, to Improving Students Learning
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to use the architectural patterns of Islamic schools in order to provide guidelines for physical environmental design of modern schools based on enhancing users’ learning. Schools, as the most important places to train human forces, play an important role in enhancing learning levels of people. Therefore, designing appropriate environments regarding students’ comprehensive development is a necessity. Spatial order and the relationship between spaces are important factors in providing physical and mental comfort for users. The spatial arrangements define communications, events and experiences within the space of interest. On the other hand, study of Islamic schools’ architecture can help the understanding of physical criteria affecting school design. The present study investigated the determining factors of physical arrangements in Islamic period schools and comparing them with modern schools, with the purpose of enhancing learning. The method of this study was quantitative-qualitative that has been conducted analytically and as survey. The sample of this study consisted of all art teachers and high school teachers of Zahedan province in the academic year of 2015-2016. In this study, Multistage Cluster Sampling method was used and the sample consisted of 310 subjects. The researchers extracted effective variables through library investigations and studying the samples of Islamic period schools in Iran. In the next stage, the obtained variables were analyzed and after confirming the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, it was used to assess the sample’s point of view. The obtained results were analyzed in SPSS software. The results indicate that the physical arrangements have positive effects on users’ learning. These criteria consist of walking in the environment, flexibility, open and roofed spaces, the relationship between inside and outside spaces, furniture, and space categories. Finally, the research findings have been formulated as the design principles of modern schools in order to enhance users’ learning.           Considering each of the environmental criteria as design principles of modern schools based on enhancing leaning will be as follows: 1. Space categories: Putting together the spaces with similar performance Separating spaces with different functions to avoid noise pollution transmission 2. Hierarchy and movement in space: Designing appropriate dimensions for the classes by predicting the movement space around the benches Observing the communicative hierarchies of various spaces Converting movement and communicative routes to learning environments by predicting seating and study spaces to adjust corridors and stairs spaces   3. Designing flexible spaces: The possibility to change class space for various individual and group activities Dedicating flexible and independent space to educational and cultural activities Designing collective spaces as open plan and the possibility to divide spaces with light and movable walls Creating multipurpose spaces for rest, study, etc. Participation of users in changing the furniture and space arrangements 4. Open and roofed spaces Designing learning yards by providing the opportunity for empirical learning Crating differences in yard floor and resting spaces for small and large groups Combining open and green spaces between closed spaces in a scattered manner 5. The relationship between inside and outside spaces Designing semi-open spaces for group activities Providing good prospects towards the outdoor in the corridors, halls and classrooms Extending the closed spaces towards yard using terraces, semi-open corridors and using canopy walls Designing semi-open spaces for resting along with the green spaces 6. Furniture Designing furniture through providing easy mobility and verbal and visual communication
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