تدوين مدلي نظري از فرايند نئوليبراليزه‌شدن شهر معاصر جهان

نقش جهان-مطالعات نظری و فناوری‌های نوین معماری و شهرسازی

دوره 7 - شماره 3

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: سال‌ها است كه شهرها به نقاط استراتژيك بروز سياستهاي نئوليبرال در بعد جغرافيايي و مكاني تبديل گشته‌اند. علارغم ظاهر جهاني، سياست‌هاي نئوليبراليسم، به عنوان هژموني غالب فضاي اقتصاد سياسي دهه‌هاي اخير، هيچ‌گاه به يك شيوه واحد در اشكال شهري تبلور نيافته اند. زمينه‌ي اقتصادي-سياسي موجود و شيوه‌هاي توليد، تعيين كننده‌ي نحوه‌ي بروز نئوليبراليسم هستند(نئوليبراليسم به‌واقع موجود). از طرف ديگر، نئوليبراليسم به‌شدت "روش‌مند" است و با فرايندي كاملا برنامه‌ريزي‌شده شكل شهر را به منظور جانمايي، باز‌آرايي و جابجايي بنگاه‌هاي اقتصادي خويش متحول مي‌گرداند. اين دو ويژگي شكل‌دهنده‌ي "پروژه ‌بازسازي‌ نئوليبرال" هستند. درك شكل شهري از خلال فرايند بازسازي نئوليبرال، هدف اين مقاله را تشكيل مي‌دهد. در اين راستا، پس از تعريف چارچوب نظري براساس دو رويكرد متمايز و درعين‌حال درهم‌تنيده‌ي مطرح در ادبيات موضوع(راجر كيل، و برنر و تئودر)، سه لايه‌ي كاركردي پروژه بازسازي نئوليبرال در شهر تشخيص داده شده است: لايه عملكردي، لايه ساختاري و لايه تحول حس مشترك؛ سپس شاخص‌هاي ساختاري نئوليبراليسم در شهر، در دو مرحله مجزا از فرايند نئوليبراليزه‌شدن، يعني مكانيزم جهان-محلي شدن و مكانيزم شهرگرايي نئوليبرال، در سه گروه كالبدي-فضايي، اجتماعي-فرهنگي و سياسي-‌اقتصادي در قالب ماتريس شاخص‌ها تبيين گشته‌اند. ماتريس حاصله، ابزاري اوليه‌ براي تحليل فرايند نئوليبراليزه‌شدن مكان‌هاي جغرافيايي و شهري در سه مقياس محلي، ملي و جهاني است، و نشان مي‌دهد نئوليبراليسم از طريق تحول اقتصاد سياسي در مقياس جهاني، دخالت در فناوري‌هاي قدرت در مقياس ملي، و تغيير در كيفيت زندگي روزمره در مقياس محلي بر شهر اثر مي‌گذارد.
Neoliberalization Process in Contemporary City: A Theoretical Model
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Cities play a strategic role in contemporary political-economic space. Despite of global process-based distribution of political and theoretical status of neo-liberalism, it’s geographical and spatial space transformations have never been experienced at determined methods. This paper indicates the question of neoliberal city form. Question in which relies on “actually existing neo-liberalism” as a key character of “neo-liberal restructuring project”. It refers to ways in which different local contexts are embedded within wider dominant global structural grid of neo-liberal discursive command centers. It implies another key attribute, the “path dependent neo-liberalism”, the neo-liberal project defined on contextually embedded bases, elaborately rearranges, replaces and redefines the structures of existing institutional layout and subsequently transforms the shape of the city in two critical moment of neoliberal restructuring project: the “moment of destruction” and the “moment of creation”. Three different layers of neo-liberal process in cities has distinguished by synthesizing two theoretically different but dialectically intertwined methodological foundations: functional layer, structural layer, “common sense revolution” layer. This synthesized theoretical frame work has conceptualized the contemporary neo-liberal city form transformation by emphasizing on distinction between two different mechanisms of neo-liberal project, the glocalization and urbanization stages. In the last part, explanation of an analytic model of neo-liberal city transformation has been emerged from discussed issues. The columns of this table-formatted model, consists of the layers of neo-liberal process and the rows Includes integrated dimensions of city form. This model provides primitive analytic criteria for understanding the overall layers of neo-liberalization process in specific urban contexts. Cities play a strategic role in contemporary political-economic space. Despite of global process-based distribution of political and theoretical status of neo-liberalism, it’s geographical and spatial space transformations have never been experienced at determined methods. This paper indicates the question of neoliberal city form. Question in which relies on “actually existing neo-liberalism” as a key character of “neo-liberal restructuring project”. It refers to ways in which different local contexts are embedded within wider dominant global structural grid of neo-liberal discursive command centers. It implies another key attribute, the “path dependent neo-liberalism”, the neo-liberal project defined on contextually embedded bases, elaborately rearranges, replaces and redefines the structures of existing institutional layout and subsequently transforms the shape of the city in two critical moment of neoliberal restructuring project: the “moment of destruction” and the “moment of creation”. Three different layers of neo-liberal process in cities has distinguished by synthesizing two theoretically different but dialectically intertwined methodological foundations: functional layer, structural layer, “common sense revolution” layer. This synthesized theoretical frame work has conceptualized the contemporary neo-liberal city form transformation by emphasizing on distinction between two different mechanisms of neo-liberal project, the glocalization and urbanization stages. In the last part, explanation of an analytic model of neo-liberal city transformation has been emerged from discussed issues. The columns of this table-formatted model, consists of the layers of neo-liberal process and the rows Includes integrated dimensions of city form. This model provides primitive analytic criteria for understanding the overall layers of neo-liberalization process in specific urban contexts. Cities play a strategic role in contemporary political-economic space. Despite of global process-based distribution of political and theoretical status of neo-liberalism, it’s geographical and spatial space transformations have never been experienced at determined methods. This paper indicates the question of neoliberal city form. Question in which relies on “actually existing neo-liberalism” as a key character of “neo-liberal restructuring project”. It refers to ways in which different local contexts are embedded within wider dominant global structural grid of neo-liberal discursive command centers. It implies another key attribute, the “path dependent neo-liberalism”, the neo-liberal project defined on contextually embedded bases, elaborately rearranges, replaces and redefines the structures of existing institutional layout and subsequently transforms the shape of the city in two critical moment of neoliberal restructuring project: the “moment of destruction” and the “moment of creation”. Three different layers of neo-liberal process in cities has distinguished by synthesizing two theoretically different but dialectically intertwined methodological foundations: functional layer, structural layer, “common sense revolution” layer. This synthesized theoretical frame work has conceptualized the contemporary neo-liberal city form transformation by emphasizing on distinction between two different mechanisms of neo-liberal project, the glocalization and urbanization stages. In the last part, explanation of an analytic model of neo-liberal city transformation has been emerged from discussed issues. The columns of this table-formatted model, consists of the layers of neo-liberal process and the rows Includes integrated dimensions of city form. This model provides primitive analytic criteria for understanding the overall layers of neo-liberalization process in specific urban contexts. Cities play a strategic role in contemporary political-economic space. Despite of global process-based distribution of political and theoretical status of neo-liberalism, it’s geographical and spatial space transformations have never been experienced at determined methods. This paper indicates the question of neoliberal city form. Question in which relies on “actually existing neo-liberalism” as a key character of “neo-liberal restructuring project”. It refers to ways in which different local contexts are embedded within wider dominant global structural grid of neo-liberal discursive command centers. It implies another key attribute, the “path dependent neo-liberalism”, the neo-liberal project defined on contextually embedded bases, elaborately rearranges, replaces and redefines the structures of existing institutional layout and subsequently transforms the shape of the city in two critical moment of neoliberal restructuring project: the “moment of destruction” and the “moment of creation”. Three different layers of neo-liberal process in cities has distinguished by synthesizing two theoretically different but dialectically intertwined methodological foundations: functional layer, structural layer, “common sense revolution” layer. This synthesized theoretical frame work has conceptualized the contemporary neo-liberal city form transformation by emphasizing on distinction between two different mechanisms of neo-liberal project, the glocalization and urbanization stages. In the last part, explanation of an analytic model of neo-liberal city transformation has been emerged from discussed issues. The columns of this table-formatted model, consists of the layers of neo-liberal process and the rows Includes integrated dimensions of city form. This model provides primitive analytic criteria for understanding the overall layers of neo-liberalization process in specific urban contexts.