تببين مدل نوين كيفيت هاي طراحي شهري فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني

نقش جهان-مطالعات نظری و فناوری‌های نوین معماری و شهرسازی

دوره 7 - شماره 3

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: بهره گيري از فضاهاي زيرزميني بعنوان فضاهاي شهري (عمومي) به دليل كمبود زمين شهري در كلان شهرها، در ادبيات "طراحي شهري" دهه هاي اخير مطرح شده است. چالش اصلي طراحي و توسعه فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني، برخي خصيصه هاي اين گونه فضاها، در مقايسه با ساير فضاهاي شهري روي سطح زمين مي باشد كه تا كنون مورد پژوهش قرار نگرفته است. بعلاوه، عدم پژوهش پيرامون معيارها و كيفيت هاي طراحي شهري منحصر به فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني عامل ديگري است كه امكان بهره برداري از پتانسيل هاي اين گونه فضاها را تضعيف نموده است. به نظر مي رسد فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني عصر ارتباطات مي بايست بر اساس نيازها و فرهنگ شهروندان طراحي شوند. اين گونه فضاها لازم است به دور از آلودگي هاي گوناگون، بستري آرام و امن را براي تعاملات اجتماعي شهروندان فراهم كند. از اين رو تلاش مي شود تا با روش تحقيق توصيفي- تحليلي و بهره گيري از اسناد و منابع كتابخانه اي و اينترنتي در حوزه طراحي شهري، كيفيت هاي خاص يك فضاي شهري زيرزميني تبيين گردد. 
يافته هاي اين پژوهش مبين برخي كيفيت هاي فضاي شهري مورد تاكيد اكثر پژوهشگران ايراني و غيرايراني حوزه طراحي شهري و همچنين كيفيت هاي مستخرج از تجارب محدود پروژه هاي فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني بوده كه با توجه به برخي خصايص فضاهاي زيرزميني قابليت تعميم به فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني را داراست. نتيجه پژوهش معرف گونه يي از فضاهاي شهري در ادبيات طراحي شهري، با ساختار نويني از طبقه بندي كيفيت ها در دو سطح كلي و جزئي است. كيفيت هاي خاص فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني در سه گونه كلي "درون فضايي"، "ميان فضايي" و "برون فضايي" ارائه شده است. كيفيت هاي خرد زيرمجموعه هر يك از كيفيت هاي مذكور نيز به تفكيك در متن مقاله ارائه شده است. ابعاد كيفيت هاي خرد فضاهاي شهري زيرزميني نيز در نتيجه گيري توصيف شده است.
Definition of New Model of Urban Design Qualities for Underground Urban Spaces
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Today, cities need public spaces for social interactions. Shortage of land on the ground level in metropolitan areas is a big challenge for creating public spaces. Using underground spaces for creating public space in urban areas could be an efficient answer to solve mention problem. Using underground area as an urban space is a wise decision for creation of more public spaces in big cities. Creating well organized underground urban spaces for various activities instead of normal unplanned underground spaces need theoretical foundation. It seems existing underground spaces in cities such as Toronto, Montreal, Osaka, Paris and Stockholm and future underground spaces need unique urban design qualities to act as riche public spaces.
This development research is a kind of scientific study on urban design qualities of underground urban spaces. The main aim and objective of this research is to derive appropriate urban design qualities for high quality of underground urban spaces. Basically, quality of urban spaces was defined through observing and descripting existing underground urban spaces and their documents such as reports, maps and pictures; and analysing various available urban design theories.
Importance of accessibility, legibility and their impressive impact on an urban space are significant points that learned from urban design researcher who focus on the mentioned qualities. Special academic information in scientific papers available in national scientific databases of Iran like http://sid.ir and “http://www.magiran.com” shows urban design researchers highlight some of the qualities such as social interaction, security, visual quality and identity. Some of the leading researcher in the field of urban design has focused on accessibility and other qualities like scale of space shape and form, identity in England and America. Underground urban space should answer various urban complexities affecting urban design quality, which differentiate the determination of quality of this kind of space from those on the ground level. Underground urban space requires unique qualities to perform in a different level from other areas of the city such as those on the ground level.
In this regard, the characteristics of underground urban spaces are necessary to provide a set of urban design quality for these types of urban spaces. Underground urban spaces should be studied with respect to technical (mechanical & electrical), architectural and urban design aspects to provide truly useful results. Therefore in relation with urban design quality, it is important to consider the technical aspects. The technical aspect of locating infrastructure at same level of underground urban space is one of the significant aspects which affecting the quality of these spaces.