جايگاه مؤلفه‌هاي طبيعي «حيات قرآني» در معماري ايراني اسلامي (موردكاوي: خانه‌هاي دوره زنديه تا پهلوي در شيراز)

نقش جهان-مطالعات نظری و فناوری‌های نوین معماری و شهرسازی

دوره 7 - شماره 3

نوع مقاله: Case report
چكيده: تعاليم اسلامي انسان را به عنوان جانشين خداوند تبارك و تعالي در زمين معرفي مي‌نمايد. بنابراين انسان خليفه‌الله بايد در پي تجلّي‌دادن كيفياتي باشد كه به ايجاد محيط مناسبي براي زندگي انسان و توسعه زمين بينجامد. انسان در برخورد با پديده‌ها و همينطور اعمال خويش بايد اصولي را مرعي دارد كه اهم آنها از طبيعت نيز (به عنوان خلق الهي) قابل استنباط و استنتاط هستند و از جمله مهم‌ترين آنها رعايت عدل است. براي شناخت مباني تفكري كه حفاظت از طبيعت و عناصر طبيعي را در جامعه‌اي به عنوان يك فرهنگ و باوري قوي ايجاد مي‌كند، توجه به منابع و مأخذ اصلي آن تفكر ضرورت دارد. در مواجهه و تماس با طبيعت و عناصر طبيعي يكي از مهم‌ترين منابع فرهنگ ايراني قرآن كريم است كه تعاليم آن جهت‌دهنده و كمال‌بخشنده فرهنگ ايراني بوده‌است. آيات قرآن و احاديث و تعاليم پرحكمت اسلامي همواره طبيعت و عناصر آن را مهم و قابل توجه دانسته‌است و فقه شيعه نيز بر حكم تحريم شرعي در مورد استفاده ناروا از طبيعت تفاسير متعدد داشته‌است.
مقاله حاضر ضمن بيان مؤلفه‌هاي هويت طبيعي مؤثر در معماري و تأكيد آيات و روايات قرآني بر هريك از آنها به عنوان متغيرهاي اصلي تحقيق در «حيات»، به بيان جايگاه اين مؤلفه‌ها در معماري مسكوني ايراني اسلامي و به ويژه «حياط» مي‌پردازد و براي نمونه خانه‌هاي تاريخي دوره‌هاي زنديه، قاجاري و پهلوي در شيراز مورد بررسي قرار مي‌گيرد. همچنين راهكارهايي براي دوران كنوني بيان مي‌گردد تا حيات طيبه اسلامي مورد توجه انديش‌ورزان قرار گيرد. روش‌تحقيق اين مقاله، كيفي است و روش جمع‌آوري اطلاعات به صورت مطالعات كتابخانه‌اي و اسنادي مي‌باشد. نتايج حاصله حاكي از آن است كه بين آيات قرآني و احاديث و توجه به «حيات» و «مسأله سكونت در معماري مسكوني ايراني‌اسلامي» مي‌توان رابطه‌اي دانست كه با توجه به مؤلفه‌هاي هويت طبيعي هر اقليم اين مسأله خود را بروز مي‌دهد.
The Significance of Natural Components of Quranic Life in Islamic-Iranian Architecture (Case Studies: Residential Architecture of Qajar, Zand and Pahlavi Eras in Shiraz)
Article Type: Case report
Abstract: Man is considered as a successor to God Almighty on the earth in Islamic teachings. Therefore, man as the Divine Caliph should seek to manifest those qualities that lead to an environment conducive to human life and the development of the earth. When encountering phenomena and his own actions, he must observe some principles, the most important of which such as the observance of justice can be inferred from the nature (as the divine creation). To understand the fundamental of a school of thought that fosters the protection of the nature and natural elements as a strong culture and belief in a given society, one needs to take into account the origins of such a school. When encountering the nature and natural components, the Iranian culture uses the Holy Quran as one of the most important sources whose teaching and doctrines form and direct the Iranian culture. 
Addressing the components of natural identity affecting architecture and as emphasized in Quranic verses and traditions, this paper explores natural elements as the main variables of “life” and their role in the Islamic-Iranian residential architecture especially “yards”. In current study, residential architecture of Shiraz is like link in the chain that links two introspective and extrovert architecture in central points and other points of Iran. 
In total, Shiraz residential architecture and its houses has been dedicated this city. In general, it can be said that one of the richest examples of residential culture of Iranian architecture is in Shiraz traditional houses. 
The historical houses constructed in Zand, Qajar and Pahlavi eras were used as the sample under study. In addition, some solutions were provided for the current period so that thinkers can be able to take into account the pure Islamic life. Selective houses include Mohtasham house, Kazamzadeh house and Akbari house from Zand era, Forough-al-molk house, Manteghi-nejhad house and Atrvash house from Qajar era. Also, Shapouri house, Mohandesi house and Rashali house from Pahlavi era have been studies as other samples.
The main questions: Are there any climate elements in Shiraz residential architecture of zand, Qajar and Pahlani eras?
How climate elements have been effective on identity of architectural form in each period?
So, in this article climatic components and elements effective in Iranian traditional architecture have been studied. These components include wind, sunlight, humidity and plants and some climatic components such as balcony, central courtyard, windows area, height difference between building and courtyard. These parameters have been analyzed in samples case studies.
Research study: A qualitative research method was used and the data were collected through library sources and documents. 
In field studies structure of Shiraz residential architecture has been attention in Zand, Qajar and Pahlavi periods. In sample case studies natural components of identity in architecture have been analyzed as the main parameters.
The results suggest that there is a relationship between verses of the Quran and hadiths and paying attention to “life” and “the issue of residence in the Islamic-Iranian architecture” as manifested in the elements of natural identity in each climate.