باز آفريني حفاظت مدار سياستي جامع و يكپارچه در مواجهه با مسايل بافت هاي فرهنگي _تاريخي

نقش جهان-مطالعات نظری و فناوری‌های نوین معماری و شهرسازی

دوره 7 - شماره 3

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: اين مقاله با ارايه تعاريف و مفاهيم پايه در تبيين و تشريح بازآفريني شهري به سير تحول اين سياست در طي دو دهه گذشته مي پردازد. در اين بررسي زمينه هاي شكل گيري و تكامل رويكرد بازآفريني حفاظت مدار به عنوان جامع ترين سياست در مواجهه با مسايل بافت هاي فرهنگي و تاريخي مورد توجه قرار مي گيرد. اين رويكرد از اواخر دهه نود ميلادي مورد توجه سياست گذاران شهري و برنامه ريزان قرار گرفته و بعنوان حلقه اي واسط، نتيجه تكامل رويكرد ها، سياست ها و برنامه هاي بازآفريني و حفاظت بشمار مي رود. اجراي چنين سياستي توسط دولت هاي اروپايي علاوه بر حفظ ارزش هاي تاريخي و فرهنگي آنها موجب ساماندهي و نوسازي گستره هاي وسيعي از شهرهاي اروپا شده است. هدف اين نوشتار بررسي ميزان موفقيت و مكانيزم هاي اجراي اين سياست در اروپاي غربي به ويژه در انگلستان است. اين مقاله برگرفته از بخشي از تحقيق نگارنده در اين حوزه است كه در طي سالهاي ١٣٨٣ تا ١٣٨٦ به انجام رسيده است. براساس هدف پژوهش (توسعه دانش كاربردي در حوزه حفاظت) اين مطالعه كاربردي است، كه از طريق روش تحليل محتوا و تحليل كاركردي به بررسي زمينه هاي پيدايش اين سياست و ويژگي هاي آن مي پردازد. يافته هاي تحقيق نشان مي دهند كه گرايش به فرهنگ و توسعه برنامه هاي فرهنگي، آموزشي و گذران اوقات فراغت به عنوان محرك هاي برنامه هاي تجديد حيات شهري، زمينه ساز تحول جديدي در سياست هاي بازآفريني شهري شده است.
Conservation-led regeneration, a comprehensive and integrated policy regarding the challenges of historic and cultural urban fabrics
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Aside from introducing definition and concept of urban regeneration, this paper analyses the evolution of this policy during last two decades. In this study, the forces behind the creation and development of conservation-led regeneration approach as a comprehensive policy towards the challenges of historic urban fabrics is investigated. It provides a detailed account of the evolution of urban regeneration and conservation in the context of evolving urban policy. It shows that the evolution of these two areas of policy produced a sense of connection and synergy between regeneration and conservation efforts. There has been a shift from physically oriented sectoral renewal schemes towards a more comprehensive form of policy and practice with more emphasis on integrated treatments. The changing nature of both policies has provided a basis for the emergence of an integrated approach to the balance between conservation and regeneration. The ‘conservation-led regeneration’ or ‘regeneration through conservation’ agenda represents the convergence of these two areas of policy. There is a recognition that regeneration approaches need to be holistic and integrated to be able to tackle the problems of the historic areas. By establishing this new strategic framework, urban authorities have adopted an integrated approach to the balance between conservation and regeneration. This study is situated within the perspective of this new integrated and balanced approach which has come to be known as a ‘conservation-led regeneration’ or, ‘regeneration through conservation’ agenda.
The paper was derived from a study that completed in 2007 entitled “A Study on City Centre Regeneration: A comparative analysis of two different approaches to the revitalisation of historic city centres in Iran”. The research employed a qualitative exploratory approach that uses data from a comprehensive literature review. The results of this investigation shows that how the concept of regeneration has moved beyond the aims, aspirations, and achievements of the large-scale urban reconstruction, comprehensive redevelopment, urban renewal, and property development. It now incorporates a much more complex set of objectives to include social, cultural and economic issues. Besides, the modern concept of conservation has also evolved from an initial concern with the protection and preservation of individual buildings and monuments to a broader vehicle for urban regeneration and economic development.